Bhutanese people primarily consist of the Ngalops and Sharchops, called the Western Bhutanese and Eastern Bhutanese respectively. The Ngalops primarily consist of Bhutanese living in the western part of the country. Their culture is closely related to that of Tibet. Much the same could be said of the Sharchops, the dominant group, who originate from the eastern part of Bhutan (but who traditionally follow the Nyingmapa rather than the official Drukpa Kagyu form of Tibetan Buddhism). In modern times, with improved transportation infrastructure, there has been much intermarriage between these groups. In the early 1970s, intermarriage between the Lhotshampas and mainstream Bhutanese society was encouraged by the government.
The Taktshang Monastery, also known as the "Tiger's Nest". Bhutan is a predominantly Buddhist country.
The national language is Dzongkha, one of 53 languages in the Tibetan language family. The script, here called Chhokey ("Dharma Language"), is identical to classical Tibetan. In the schools English is the medium of instruction and Dzongkha is taught as the national language. Ethnologue lists 24 languages currently spoken in Bhutan, all of them in the Tibeto-Burman family, except Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language. Until the 1980s, the government sponsored the teaching of Nepali in schools in Southern Bhutan. However, after the armed uprising in the south, Nepali was dropped from the curriculum. The languages of Bhutan are still not well-characterized, and several have yet to be recorded in an in-depth academic grammar. Before 1990s, Lhotshampa (Nepali-speaking community), mainly based on southern Bhutan constituted of approx. 49% of population. However, during 1990s, after the Bhutanese government followed the policy of one language and one culture, these Lhotshampas were forced to wear the national costume of Bhutan, which is not conducive to the high temperature region in South. Then, protest were started to this cultural discrimination, that led to eviction of more than 100,000 Lhotshampas. These Lhotshampas take refuge in Nepal via India. Those residing in Bhutan are still in threat from government. All the bilateral talks between Nepal and Bhutan to repatriate Bhutanese refugees (Lhotshampas) have been turned futile. Hence, now, UNHCR is helping the refugees to settle in various developed countries such as Norway, USA, Canada and many others.
Religions of Bhutan
The literacy rate is 59.5 percent. The country has a median age of 22.3 years. Bhutan has a life expectancy of 62.2 years (61 for males and 64.5 for females) according to the latest data from the World Bank. There are 1,070 males to every 1,000 females in the country.