It has long been known that the testicles were responsible for secondary male characteristics and features. In ancient Greek times, the testicles of animals such as bulls were eaten before competition for enhanced performance during their games. In 1849 a scientist named Berthhold largely discovered via experimentation with Cockerals that the testicles had a blood related connection with secondary male characteristics. This research involved castration of these animals and various studies evaluating what biological effects this procedure had on them. During the 1920-30's, the first experiments were performed to isolate the testosterone molecule from bulls. Then, between the years of 1948-1954, Companies Searle and CIBA went on to sythesize and discover thousands of anabolic steroids and testosterone derivatives. Modern endocrinology was no doubt formed from this early research. Needless to say, isolating the testosterone molecule from the testis was the first step in discovering anabolic steroids. The first reports of the use of testosterone for enhancing physical prowess was the Germans. It's rumored that the Germans widely utilized testosterone during the second world war for it's ability to increase aggression in the Nazi's troops. On the athletic frontier, the Russians were the first to use testosterone for athletic enhancement in the 50's and 60's. This is evident as they smashed world weightlifting records during this time.
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